Panama, March 9, 2020. Partners Francisco Arias, Ricardo Arias, and associate Cristina De Roux contributed with Chambers & Partners, providing their professional insights into Panama’s legal securities market.
The online Panama chapter is available here.
Or a PDF version is available to download here.
Pablo Epifanio, Senior Associate, Morgan & Morgan
The stock market is undoubtedly one of the most important economic forces in the world. Every year, billions of dollars are moved through stock exchange operations, and year after year, in most jurisdictions, the stock market is promoted as a tool for financing or capturing capital for issuers and as an investment for thousands of participants seeking to place their funds in higher yield investments.
Thus, it is not unreasonable to foresee that although the stock market has had such a positive and important purpose, and in which transactions are increasingly sophisticated and complex, may be used for illicit purposes, particularly those related to financial crimes, including laundering of assets, financing of terrorist groups, among others.
This article succinctly analyzes the implications and scope of the compliance measures established in Agreement 6-2015 adopted by the Superintendency of the Securities Market of Panama, based on Law 23 of April 27, 2015, by which measures are being taken to prevent money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (the “Compliance Act”).
Regulatory Framework for Compliance Measures in Panama
The Compliance Act approved in 2015, regulated by Executive Decree No. 363 of August 13, 2015, which adopts measures that allow entities regulated under it to prevent the use of their platforms and businesses for purposes related to the crimes of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
The Compliance Act classifies those regulated entities: regulated non-financial entities, regulated financial entities and professional activities subject to supervision. The Compliance Act within the regulated financial entities includes the majority of the participants in the securities market, establishing that the provisions of the same apply to:
a) Self-regulated organizations;
b) Securities Firms;
c) Investment Managers;
d) Pension Fund Management;
e) Unemployment Fund Management;
f) Investment Companies;
g) Self-Managed Investment Companies;
h) Investment Advisers; and
i) Administrative Service Providers of the Securities Market.
An important fact to note is that the Compliance Act, Executive Decree 363 and Agreement 6-2015 do not include the issuers of securities registered with the Superintendency of the Securities Market within their scope of application. This is likely to be the case, since most of the essential intermediaries to carry out a public offering and issuance of securities are subject to regulations, including custodians, payment agents, brokerage firms and investment advisors, they are, in short, those that have a direct relationship with investors. At the same time, the issuer would unlikely be able to properly and efficiently apply due diligence measures to investors with whom it usually does not have direct contact.
The Compliance Act seeks more than anything to establish the regulatory framework applicable to regulated entities in order to facilitate the adequate identification of customers with a risk-based approach, detect funds of illicit origin, establish guidelines regarding the due diligence that regulated entities must applied to their customers, in terms of the application of the “know your customer” policy and encourage the adoption of risk policies.
For the purposes of accurately understanding the applicable legislation on compliance, it is important to keep in mind the definition of “customer” under the Compliance Act: “natural or legal person, as defined by the legal provisions that apply for each economic or professional activity indicated in the Law, with which the regulated financial entities, regulated non-financial entities and activities carried out by professionals subject to supervision establish, maintain or have maintained, in an usual or occasional manner, a contractual, professional or business relationship for the supply of any product or services inherent to its activity.”
Lastly, the Compliance Act empowers the respective regulatory authorities for the activities carried out by the different regulated entities to oversee the compliance with the Compliance Act and adopt regulations that adjust to the reality of each regulated activity.
- Sectoral Regulation Applicable to the Securities Market
The Superintendency of the Securities Market has adopted Agreement 6-2015 of August 19, 2015 (the “Agreement 6-2015”), through which it issued the provisions applicable to regulated financial entities supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market, to the prevention of the crimes of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
The regulated financial entities supervised by the Superintendency of Securities Market under Agreement 6-2015 have the obligation to maintain due diligence and care in their operations in order to reasonably prevent such operations from being carried out with funds from activities related to the crimes of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Thus, the regulated entities under the supervision of the Superintendency of the Securities Market must have the mechanisms, policies and methodologies required to manage the risk of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, taking in consideration factors such as: the risk profile of the activity exercised by the regulated entity, the profile and types of customers of the regulated entitity, the products and services offered by the regulated entity, the distribution or commercialization channels used by the regulated entity, the location of the facilities of the regulated entity, of its customers and final beneficiaries, and the risk of the custodian or correspondent services of the regulated entity.
For the evaluation of the factors described above, regulated entities must apply a “risk-based approach”, which is nothing more than an understanding of the level of risk according to their nature, in order to focus their efforts effectively. Thus, regulated entities subject to supervision must classify their customers by applying a risk-based approach to: (i) high risk customers, (ii) moderate risk customers and (iii) low risk customers; and they should review this classification at least once a year. With this approach in mind, the regulation gives certain entities flexibility to assess the risks in the services they provide, so that they can apply reinforced measures against major risks, basic measures against usual risks and simplified measures against minor risks, managing and / or mitigating risks, as the case may be.
Agreement 6-2015 specifically establishes the minimum information and documentation that should be requested and verified from customers, both for natural and legal persons, as part of the simplified due diligence that regulated entities subject to supervision of the Superintendency of the Securities Market must apply, which include: complete general information, a copy of the customer’s identification, bank and commercial references, support of funds, detail of activities to which he / she is dedicated, among others.
For the purposes of simplified due diligence in the case of legal persons, Agreement 6-2015 seeks to fully identify the final beneficiary of the legal entity and imposes measures and requirements to be obtained from each customer that is a legal entity for that purpose. For the purposes of the final beneficiary, Agreement 6-2015 states that it shall be understood as such, any natural person who individually or by common agreement with other persons, directly or indirectly, is the owner or has the right to exercise the vote with respect to ten percent (10%) or more of the issued and outstanding shares of a legal entity. In addition to the foregoing, the following must also be fully identified: (i) in the case of companies: the administrators, representatives, attorneys-in-fact and signatories of the legal entity; (ii) in the case of private interest foundations: the members of the founding council, founder and protector; and in the case of trusts: the trustee and the trustor.
Agreement 6-2015 establishes that regulated entities under it will have to apply full-range or enhanced due diligence measures for their customers or activities that may represent a high risk, in order to deepen the information of this type of customers. The Superintendency of the Securities Market, as well as other regulators of activities under the Compliance Act, has issued a guide of indicators of suspicious operations and activities in order that the regulated entities can identify high risk customers and timely apply the measures of full-range due diligence.
Among the types of customers that should be subject to full-range or enhanced due diligence, we have, among others:
a) Natural or legal persons or related business persons with natural or legal persons domiciled or incorporated in jurisdictions considered high risk by national or foreign organizations;
b) Individuals or legal entities that appear in national or foreign lists related to the prevention of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction;
c) Politically exposed persons (PEP), close relatives and close collaborators;
d) Legal persons that receive or offer the correspondent service, with special attention to those domiciled in jurisdictions that have not effectively implemented the recommendations regarding the prevention of money laundering, terrorist financing and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction;
e) Businesses with a high volume of operations in cash or quasi-cash; and
f) Businesses with a high volume of international transfers to and from countries and high-risk countries that have not implemented the recommendations regarding the prevention of money laundering crimes, financing of terrorism and financing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
When applying full-range or enhanced due diligence measures, regulated entities supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market shall require the same information and minimum documentation established for simplified due diligence, and in addition shall: (i) obtain the approval of senior management at the beginning of the business relationship; (ii) update the records of information and documentation, at least one (1) time each semester; (iii) continuous intensified monitoring throughout the commercial relationship and / or (iv) apply any other measure determined by the senior management of the regulated entity.
Simplified due diligence is the most basic policy, procedures and measures defined in the Compliance Act that may be applied by regulated entities to their customers, and are only applicable if in accordance with the risk policies of the regulated entities, based on a risk approach, it is determined that the customers to apply it are of low risk.
Executive Decree No. 363, which regulates the Compliance Act, expressly establishes the simplified due diligence measures allowed to regulated entities:
a) Reduce the documentary review process;
b) Reduce the frequency of customer identification updates; and
c) Reduce the monitoring of the business relationship and the scrutiny of operations that do not exceed the minimum amount established by supervisory bodies.
Although it does not appear so, simplified measures significantly reduce the economic and managerial burden of due diligence measures for regulated entities, especially in cases where it is evident that the business relationship is not or can not be used for illicit purposes.
An important point to be highlighted is Article 28 of the Compliance Act that establishes that the regulated entities – whether they are intermediaries or not in the securities market – will apply simplified due diligence measures to their customers that are legal persons and are listed in a stock exchange recognized by the Superintendency of the Securities Market. That is, to the issuers of common shares or participation quotas, which are duly registered in the Superintendency of the Securities Market and listed on a stock exchange, simplified due diligence measures will be applied by law. Therefore, regulated intermediaries may apply their simplified due diligence measures to their issuing customers, provided that the before mentioned comply with the conditions established in Article 28 of the Compliance Act.
The main purpose of the compliance regulation in question is based more than anything on prevention, that is why in cases where a customer of a regulated entity does not facilitate compliance with the relevant measures of due diligence, the regulated entity may not open the account or start the business relationship or make the proposed transaction.
Agreement 6-2015 establishes that any new account or commercial relationship must comply with the evaluation of the financial and transactional profile of the customer, in order to measure the risk of the products or services offered. For these purposes, “financial profile” means “the result of the analysis of a set of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and variables that are presented by a customer and verified by the regulated entity at the time of opening the account or beginning of the business relationship; and that it must be enriched with updated and historical information, with the purpose of establishing the common practice that the customer will maintain with the regulated entity.”
Basically, the analysis and processing of the financial documentation required in the course of the simplified or enhanced due diligence measures gives rise to the financial profile that the regulated entity must develop for each customer. On the other hand, the “transactional profile” refers to the “contrast between the financial profile and the frequency and capacity of a customer’s actual transaction in one or several periods of time.”
In conclusion, the obligation of each regulated entity supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market is to perform an analysis based on criteria in terms of capacity and financial transaction volume of each customer and then make the contrast between said analysis and the reality of each case.
Agreement 6-2015 establishes two important obligations in regards to the employees of the regulated entities supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market: the first obligation is to have a “Know Your Employee” policy, which seeks that regulated entities have personnel selection procedures and supervise the behaviour of their employees, especially those who perform positions related to customer management, fund management, control of information and other important controls. It is also important that regulated entities establish a profile of this type of employees, which shall be updated at least once a year.
The second obligation of the regulated entities in regards to their employees is the obligation to carry out continuous and specific trainings at least once a year, to the employees with roles related to the management, communication and handling of customer and supplier relationships, receipt of funds, transaction processing, product design and services, compliance, risk, human resources, technology and internal auditing in a way that allows them to be updated on the different types, cases and regulations of money laundering, terrorism financing and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
One of the most important tools that the Compliance Act and the Agreement 6-2015 gives to the regulated entities supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market are the Suspicious Operations Reports (ROS) and the Unusual Operations Reports (ROI) to the Financial Analysis Unit (UAF). Many times we tend to use these terms as synonyms when they are different and have different implications.
“Suspicious operation” is understood as an operation that can not be justified or sustained against the financial or transactional profile of the customer or that which may be related to illicit purposes. On the other hand, “unusual operation” is understood to be one that is not consistent with a financial or transactional profile declared by the customer or that exceeds the parameters set by the regulated entity in the due diligence process performed on the customer, and that consequently must be justified.
Thus, unusual operation means in short an alert for the regulated entity that the operation is not regular, based on the expected behavior of the customer or exceeds the criteria set for the customer in terms of financial capacity or volume of transactions, and the customer must be required to sustain the operation. Suspicious operation, on the other hand, is one that has no way to be justified or that can reasonably be considered to be linked to the crimes of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Executive Decree No. 363 that regulates the Compliance Act establishes that the regulated entities must have measures that allow the timely detection of unusual operations in order to analyze them and rule out or corroborate the unusual operation. Unusual operations that can not be corroborated or verified according to the customer’s profile may be reported by the regulated entity as suspicious transactions.
In addition, operations suspected of being related to the crimes of money laundering, financing of terrorism, financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction shall be reported as suspicious transactions to the Financial Analysis Unit within 15 calendar days from the detection of the event, transaction, operation or control failure.
In addition, the regulated entities have the obligation to report transactions in cash or quasi-cash, for amounts exceeding the sum of Ten Thousand Dollars (US$10,000.00), legal currency of the United States of America, within the first 10 business days of each month. “Quasi-cash” means, for these purposes, cashier’s checks, travel checks, orders issued to bearer, multiple endorsements, blank endorsements, and other negotiable documents.
All reports to the Financial Analysis Unit must be made through the compliance officer, who will be the liaison person with said entity in regards to the regulated entities supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market.
Agreement 6-2015 establishes the obligation for regulated entities supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market to adopt, through its Board of Directors, a Prevention Manual that must be reviewed at least one (1) time a year and must contain at least:
1) Mechanism, policies and methodologies for administration and policies for mitigating the risk of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction;
2) The classification of customers according to the risk-based approach;
3) The “Know Your Customer” policy;
4) The “Know Your Employee” policy;
5) The periodicity of the reviews and updating of the information and documentation of the customers;
6) Policies relating to correspondent relations;
7) Policies relating to customers or high-risk activities;
8) Policies regarding the confidentiality and protection of information;
9) Contingency plans for information retrieval in cases of disasters;
10) Internal control policies;
11) Norms of self-evaluation of the degree of risk and good practices for the prevention of the crimes of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction;
12) Ethical norms and standards;
13) The liaison person with the Financial Analysis Unit;
14) Management of ROS and other reports to the Financial Analysis Unit;
15) Formation of the Ethics and Compliance Committee and the Audit Committee.
Regarding the Ethics and Compliance Committee, Agreement 6-2015 provides that all regulated entities supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market must have one to approve the opening of accounts or the commencement of business relations for customers or activities requiring full-range or enhanced due diligence measures to be carried out, and the follow-up to this type of high risk customers. This committee must be formed by at least three (3) members of the Board of Directors. The Ethics and Compliance Committee must also plan, coordinate and ensure compliance with current regulations on the prevention of money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Likewise, Agreement 6-2015 provides that all regulated entities supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market must have an Audit Committee that is responsible for the execution, evaluation and effectiveness of the internal control systems of the regulated entity, in order to monitor the internal measures and softwares used in relation to the protection of information, prevention of unlawful acts and compliance with current regulations on the prevention of money laundering crimes, financing of terrorism and financing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
All regulated entities supervised by the Superintendency of the Securities Market must update the information and documentation of their customers at least one (1) time per year for all customers and one (1) time per semester for customers subject to full-range or enhanced due diligence measures. At the same time, they must safeguard the information, documentation and records of the operations carried out, for a minimum period of five (5) years from the termination of the commercial relationship with the customer.
The Compliance Act classifies sanctions in two types: Generic Sanctions and Specific Sanctions. Generic sanctions are those established by said Law for breaches of the provisions of the Compliance Act or its sectoral regulations, including as such Agreement 6-2015, for which there is no specific sanction, which will consist of a fine of US$5,000.00 to US$1,000,000.00. Specific Sanctions are those applicable to specific breaches of the Compliance Act or its sectoral regulations, as regulated by the regulatory authority of the respective activity. The Superintendency of the Securities Market has not regulated the specific sanctions to date, for which generic sanctions (fines) will be applied pursuant to article 60 of the Compliance Act.
The fines imposed for breaches of the Compliance Act may be collected through the coercive jurisdiction of each supervisory body, or through the coercive collection process before the General Revenue Directorate. These fines are without prejudice to any civil or criminal liability that may arise.
Executive Decree No. 363 provides a clear picture in terms of the seriousness of the infractions, since it lists some breaches as infractions with minor severity, medium severity and maximum severity. This allows the regulated entity to identify the level of severity of the sanction for the non-compliances listed.
Finally, Executive Decree No. 363 gives the supervisory bodies of each activity the right to cancel, withdraw, restrict or remove licenses, Certificates of Competence or other authorizations from regulated entities that violate the provisions in force regarding compliance, subject to the verification of the sanctioning processes that correspond.
It is a true and lawful translation into English of the original document written in Spanish. Panama, March 12, 2018. Michelle Williams – Authorized Public Translator – Resolution No. 5775 of November 12, 2014, Republic of Panama.
Panama, November 6, 2019. Jose Carrizo, head of the Litigation and Dispute Resolution practice of Morgan & Morgan, contributed with the Panama chapter of The Arbitration Review of the Americas 2020, providing a comprehensive analysis of the arbitration system in Panama, its legislation and every aspect that confirms the country as an international and regional center for the resolution of arbitral disputes.
The publication can be download here.
Fanny Evans, Senior Associate, Morgan & Morgan
In 2013, Virginia Ginni Rometty – CEO of IBM, said “I would like you to think of big data as the next natural resource that can be to our era what steam, electricity and oil were for the Industrial Age.”
Probably, you have read or heard: Data is the new oil! Data is the new bacon! Data is the new currency! These analogies have become very popular because data is now considered one of the most important commodities.
This is the result of the emergence of many successful Social Networks that, although they are not payment platforms, have turned the data into a source of value.
The need for a data-protection compliance program in business is becoming increasingly important after several high-profile leaks of companies’ data. Some of the biggest data breaches over the last two years include T-Mobile, Marriot, British Airways, Quora, Google, Orbitz and just recently, Capital One bank in the United States. A successful data breach may occur in less than one minute. Yet, businesses may take more than weeks to realize a breach has occurred.
When giving the first steps into complex waters like data protection, it is very common that companies get lost in the avalanche of legal requirements or in developing that product or service that might result attractive to its clients. However, for a business, changing the focus to issues that they may consider more interesting should never be an option because the results of data breaches include many types of damages: fromreputational to financial. Sometimes it can even affect an entire country as happened with, in my opinion, the wrongfully or unjustifiably called “Panama Papers”.
In the European Union, data protection is a fundamental right, and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which came into force on May 25th, 2018, is the new framework for protecting that right. Other countries are looking to the GDPR as they develop or implement their own laws to protect data.
Even if companies have an “it will not happen to me” approach to data breaches, in many countries, legislation is forcing them to rethink their reasoning. Here is where compliance plays an important role to help to plan a data-protection compliance program.
Here are five steps that can help as guidance when drafting or reviewing your data-protection compliance program:
- Understand your risks and legal and ethical obligations
One of the most important elements when building a data-protection compliance program is considering your risks and what is most important and mandatory to the business, instead of jumping into the requirements of a legislation without fully understanding your needs because not all risks or obligations are managed in the same manner or to the same extent. This program needs to set out the appropriate guidance in key areas.
Having said the above, the first step should always be to understand the business necessity to comply. This involves a careful analysis of what your obligations are, what the risk of breaching those obligations might be and what risks your company is willing to take.
- Document and review your policies
Your data-protection compliance program should be properly documented. Once the obligations and risks are understood, it is vital to document them. It is not just enough to know you are data privacy compliant. Your data-protection compliance program should be clearly verifiable and readily accessible through accurate reports and documentation for internal or external examinations.
The compliance officer shall perform a formal review on a regular basis to ensure that the data-protection compliance program is progressing as planned and that it is adjusted to meet any changes in legislation or the business.
- Allocate ownership
The responsibilities and tasks related to confidentiality and data-protection may overlap with other business policies, such as information technology security, recordkeeping, risks and audit, human resources, management of confidential information and others as it requires various skills to succeed. Therefore, the most advanced and elaborated data-protection compliance program will fail if there is no clear ownership of the tasks. Each business will structure the ownership differently, but it is vital that who is the owner of each task of the program is clearly understood and that the owners have the necessary resources, including training, so that they are competent to fulfil their role in a manner that is consistent with the business’ compliance culture.
- Provide training and the necessary resources
Always train your staff. If you have an informed team it will reduce your risk. Raise staff awareness.
Not only does training staff reduce the risk of breaches, it also demonstrates compliance before internal and external inquiries. For example, if an organization was to experience a data breach and they had documented their staff training on data protection, this would be used as evidence to prove that they had taken the appropriate steps to prevent a data breach and were taking the legislation seriously, if any.
Training should aim to ensure that all members of the team have an understanding of the data that they will have access to and the risks entailed. Training should be provided on a regular basis, and it ought to be performed again whenever there are significant changes to positions, structures, risks or obligations, or when actual issues arise. Also, the business shall incorporate data protection training into its process for onboarding new employees.
Businesses shall embed data-protection compliance program into it culture so that protecting information becomes second nature. This aspect, training and continuing education, should always include senior management.
- Review the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Guidance on the Risk-Based Approach
A risk-based approach to compliance involves identifying the areas of high risk within the business’s compliance universe and building and prioritizing its compliance programs around these risks.
In order to assist both public authorities and the private sector in applying a risk-based approach, the FATF has adopted a series of guidance in co-operation with relevant sectors. Businesses shall review the guidance applicable to its industry to make sure that the appropriate mitigation measures in accordance with the level of risk are taken.
Data is one of the most important assets a business has. For that reason alone, data protection compliance program should be a top priority for any business.
Analissa Carles, Associate, Morgan & Morgan
On May 19, 2016, the concept of a “Bankruptcy,” as the legal term was defined, ceased to exist under Panamanian law. Law 12 of 2016 (the “Insolvency Law”) entered into force on that date and introduced new proceedings into our legal system. These proceedings are referred to as Reorganization and Liquidation.
The enactment of the Insolvency Law sought not only the protection of the rights of creditors, but also to achieve a differentiation between “efficient” and “non-efficient” companies, depending on the reasons and circumstances that give rise to their insolvency status.
For “efficient companies”, the law introduces the “Reorganization Proceeding,” the main purpose of which is the recovery and continuation of the company as an economic unit and employer.
A Reorganization Proceeding pursues similar objectives as the bankruptcy protection provisions established in Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. Thus, a Reorganization Proceeding allows the restructuring of a company’s debt obligations and can be initiated at the request of the insolvent company or by its duly organized creditors through a “Board of Creditors.” The insolvency petition must be accompanied by a series of documents that include, among others, the company’s financial statements, an inventory of its assets and liabilities, payroll obligations and the Reorganization Plan, in which the debtor must provide a financial, organizational, operational and competitiveness restructuring project with the intention of solving the causes that led to the company’s failure to make required payments, its imminent insolvency or foreseeable lack of liquidity.
This Reorganization Plan is significant in that it serves to initiate the proceeding itself. Subsequently, when the creditors formally join the proceeding to submit evidence of their credits, the Reorganization Plan must be subjected to a vote by the established Board of Creditors, who must either approved or reject said plan. The result of this vote will decide whether: a) the company will in effect be reorganized through the execution of said plan; b) the culmination of the proceeding without any agreement, in which case the bankruptcy protections would be lifted and the debtor would have to negotiate with each of its creditors separately; or, c) the Judicial Liquidation of the Company.
Judicial Liquidation Proceeding
The Judicial Liquidation Proceeding, as the name implies, focuses on liquidating “inefficient” companies in a prompt and orderly manner. This can be initiated at the request of the debtor by means of a Voluntary Liquidation or by means of a duly substantiated petition from a creditor, which in this case would be a Compulsory Liquidation.
In either case, the petition must be accompanied by a series of requirements and documentation. In the case of a Voluntary Liquidation petition, provided all requirements are met, the court will issue a resolution declaring that the company is in liquidation.
For Compulsory Liquidation, provided all requirements are met, the request will be accepted and the debtor will be given an opportunity to answer the creditor’s petition. The court will then set a date for an initial hearing. If the debtor opposes the petitioner’s claim against it and the judge deems such opposition to have sufficient grounds, it shall deny the claim and the proceeding shall terminate. However, if the court deems said opposition to have insufficient grounds or if the debtor does not even submit any opposition, the debtor may: a) allocate sufficient funds for the payment of the debt; b) agree with the requesting creditor for the hearing to be suspended in order for the parties to reach an arrangement; or, c) submit to a Reorganization Proceeding. If, however, the debtor does not choose any of the aforementioned options, the judge will issue a resolution for a Liquidation Declaration, with the corresponding legal effects.
It has been interesting to see the development and execution of this relatively new law before the courts of Panama, especially since it also provides for the creation of new Insolvency Circuit Courts, as well as the Fourth Superior Court of the First Judicial District, consisting of three justices elected by the Supreme Court, in full, with exclusive jurisdiction over insolvency proceedings. However, to date, these courts have not been created and, therefore, the Civil Circuit Courts are currently in charge of hearing such proceedings. These circumstances have forced the judges ruling over these cases to become overly reliant on the technical criteria of the Bankruptcy Administrators appointed by them within the proceeding. Consequently, said Bankruptcy Administrators, who serve as an assistant of the Court, must have the legal and accounting capacity to warn of possible irregularities within the proceeding, from the initial scrutiny of the insolvency application, together with all the supporting documentation. They must also be able to determine if, indeed, they are facing an efficient company that can improve its current financial condition, and they must even make recommendations against the aforementioned Reorganization Plan, before it is submitted to the Board of Creditors for their vote. This level of expertise, although not expressly required by law, has become a necessity given the unforeseen preponderance that the expert input of these Bankruptcy Administrators has acquired.
There are many conceptual and practical elements to analyze in Law 12 of 2016. However, as is often the case, only through the practice and application of this law has allowed both lawyers and financial institutions to fully grasp the challenges ahead. Regardless of the above, the objective of the Law is positive – especially since, previously, a bankruptcy declaration was a de facto death knell for a company. It is therefore worthwhile to focus efforts on maximizing the advantages created under the law in order to obtain the desired results. These, however, will ultimately depend to a large extent on the good will and good faith dealings of both creditors and debtors.
Alvaro Tomas, partner and Vice President of Operations of the Fiduciary Unit of Morgan & Morgan
The Panamanian government has issued Law 99 of October 11, 2019, which establishes a General Tax Amnesty Law (“Amnesty”) that includes the elimination, for a limited period, of the penalties and surcharges caused by non-payment of the obligations with the National Treasury for corporations and private interest foundations. This law also includes amnesty for various types of interests and penalties resulting from non-payment of other taxes (for example: property or income tax).
Tax Amnesty Terms
The Amnesty Law will be extended until February 29, 2020 with exoneration as follows:
Full exoneration (100%) for those who pay in October and November 2019;
95% for those who pay in December 2019;
90% for those who pay in January 2020 and;
85% for those who pay on February 29, 2020.
The aforementioned Amnesty is the perfect opportunity to bring your legal vehicle into good standing without additional charges or to proceed with its dissolution instead of being struck off (which is the legally correct manner).
At Morgan & Morgan we have a range of seasoned professionals working alongside the young talent that can help you with the administration of your corporate vehicles and foundations. Please write to firstname.lastname@example.org if you are interested in more information.
María Eugenia Brenes, associate of the Intellectual Property and Corporate Law Department of Morgan & Morgan
Formalizing a business requires several decisions of a legal nature.
The first thing that should be considered is to determine whether the venture is on a personal basis or through a corporation. This decision is very important and it depends, mainly, on the following factors:
a) Economic Factor. It is more cost-effective to carry out business activities on a personal basis (natural person), since maintaining a company (legal person) involves, among others, the payment of fees to the lawyer acting as a resident agent and the flat annual franchise tax. However, the fiscal obligations per se are the same, that is, the requirements of the General Directorate of Revenues (DGI) must be met in both scenarios by presenting reports, declaring taxes and having a fiscal team, among others.
b) Risk Factor. Choosing to carry out activities through a company involves separating the personal assets, rights and obligations from those of a company; therefore, the assets of natural persons would not be affected in the event that the company has to answer for any obligation and vice versa. The foregoing means that the personal assets would not be affected in the event of any claim by third parties against the company.
In view of the above, although it is more expensive to operate a business via a company, we consider it appropriate to take that path as it allows keeping the personal assets separate from that of a company.
Type of activities to be carried out
The second consideration is to determine if the activities to be carried out are allowed or not, since there are restrictions in Panama for reasons of nationality and suitability. This applies to natural persons as well as to the directors and shareholders of a company. For example, certain activities such as retail sales, or beauty clinics, stylists or cosmetologists are activities that are reserved for Panamanians. There are many other activities that can be exercised by nationals of other countries without any restriction, for example, the wholesale sale of goods and the provision of services in general.
Domicile or business premises
Having determined the commercial activity to undertake, it is necessary to determine the address or location where it will be carried out. This is essential, since, depending on the zoning code, certain areas are not suitable for commercial activities or some type of them. For example, if the zoning of a residential area prohibits the location of food stores or beauty salons; it will not be feasible to carry out these activities on said location. The Ministry of Commerce and Industries recommends to all applicants of a Notice of Operation to have a zoning certificate of the site where the commercial activities will be carried out to demonstrate its viability.
Notice of Operation
The next step is to obtain a Notice of Operation that will constitute the ideal instrument that enables either a natural or legal person to trade in Panama. For this purpose it is necessary to enter the site www.panamaemprende.gob.pa.
When accessing, all the fields of the notice application must be filled in, including, among others, the name that is intended to be used to identify the commercial establishment. It is convenient to choose a name that shows distinction with other businesses to avoid any confusion with other businesses that may give rise to disputes over commercial denominations. The commercial name of an establishment is closely related to the use of the brand with which it is intended to identify products and/or services; thus, it is important to have the advice of a legal professional.
Once the system generates the payment slip for the corresponding rights, it is necessary to pay off the amount with a credit card or directly in Banco Nacional de Panamá. When the payment is made, the system will accept it and allow the printing of the Notice of Operation that will protect the business activities.
For certain businesses it is necessary to request and obtain prior or special permits before opting for the Notice of Operation. Such is the case, among others, of coffee shops, restaurants, bars, banks, financial companies, engineering services and construction in general.
Operating a business entails tax implications, regardless of whether they are carried out in a personal capacity or using a corporation, such as:
- Updating the Single Taxpayer Registry (RUC), and obtaining a Tax Identification Number (NIT);
- Annual payment of the Notice of Operation Tax;
- Getting of fiscal printer, depending on the business;
- Registering in the corresponding Municipality and pay monthly taxes;
- If there have workers, signing up for the CSS (Social Security System), withhold fees, and pay them monthly;
- Present monthly reports of the ITBMS (Sales Tax) to the DGI;
- Present income statements before the DGI and the Municipality of Panama.
It is worth mentioning that natural persons or companies that register with the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Authority (AMPYME) have the right to obtain the exemption from payment of income tax during the first two years of operation of the business. In this way, registering with the AMPYME offers advantages that also include, among others, guarantees for loans.
Generally speaking, these are the aspects that must be considered before starting a business in the Republic of Panama.
The professionals of Morgan & Morgan have the qualifications to provide optimal advice for the start of your business, foreseeing compliance with all the legal provisions that govern the matter, as well as to advise on the protection of their intellectual rights within the framework of the business.
Panama’s Labor Code, in effect since April 1972, with some changes in the last years, regulates the relationship between capital and labor, based on the principles of social justice established in the Political Constitution of the Republic and it creates a special State protection as a benefit of the employees. The State will intervene to promote employment, create the necessary conditions which ensure that all employees have a decorous existence and to ensure that the capital has an equitable return for its investment, within a scheme that fosters harmonious labor relations that permit permanent growth of productivity.
The provisions of the Labor Code are of public order and they bind all persons, natural or legal, enterprises, undertakings and establishments that are at present established or that may be established within the national territory.
Public servants will be governed by the rules of the civil service, except in those cases in which this Code specifically determines the application of some provisions to them.
Cases not provided for, either in the Code or supplementary legal provisions, shall be decided in accordance with the general principles of the labor law provisions of the Code which govern similar cases or matters, equity and custom.
To legally work in Panama, as general rule, foreigners are required to obtain a Visa and a Work Permit, in separate processes, before the Immigration authorities and in the Ministry of Labor. Some foreigners are exempted to obtain a Work Permit, such as companies that have a multinational headquarters license (SEM Companies), issued by the Ministry of Commerce.
Under Panamanian law there are limits to the hiring of foreign employees. The general rule is that 10% of the workforce can be foreigners and up to 15% if the expatriates are technical or trusted employees. However, there are certain types of visas and work permits which do not apply to these limits.
All employees are required to sign a written employment contract, that must be sealed before the Ministry of Labor. In the absence of a written contract, facts and circumstances alleged by the employee, will be presumed to be true.
The general rule is that work contracts must be for an indefinite period, except for temporary positions, such as, vacations, sick leave replacement, or specific time for a task.
The parties can agree in the contract a probationary period up to the term of three months. During this period, the employer can terminate the contract without any cause, and without paying a severance.
Wages in Panama can be fixed by unit of time (month, fortnight, week, day or hour), or by specific job. Any additional payment, such as gratuities, bonus, premiums, commissions, profit sharing, salaries in kind, and any other benefit, due to the employment relationship, are considered as part of the salary.
Wages must be paid to the employees at least twice a month.
A collective Agreement has the purpose of establishing labor and employment conditions, by an employer and by a union.
All the employers who have employees’ members of a union, must negotiate a collective agreement when the union present a request, either directly to the employer, or through a conciliatory procedure proposed in the Ministry of Labor.
Clauses of the collective labor agreement will apply to all categories of employees, unless the agreement expressly indicates the contrary.
The collective agreement cannot be established under conditions less favorable for the employees than those established by law, the contracts, rules or common practices in effect in the respective company.
All collective agreements bind the parties and the persons in whose name they are made or to whom they apply. It also applies to the future members of the employer.
The provisions of individual labor contracts contrary to or incompatible with the collective agreement, shall be ineffective and automatically substituted by the provisions of the collective agreement. The provisions which are more favorable to the employees shall not be considered contrary to the collective agreement.
The duration of the collective agreement shall not be less than two years, not more than four years.
Once the date fixed has expires, it will continue to be in force until a new one replacing has been concluded, without prejudice to the right of the employees to propose a new negotiation.
In any case in which, due to delay or omission of the employer, the Caja de Seguro Social is not obliged to recognized the benefits to which such special legislation refers, such benefits shall be paid in full by the employer.
The compensation to which employees are entitled under are as follows:
- In case of temporary disability for the performance of his usual occupation, the employee shall be entitled to daily compensation equal to his wages during the first two months of disability; and equivalent to fifty percent of the same during the following ten months if the injured person shall continue to be disabled all that time, in accordance with a medical opinion rendered for that purpose. Said compensation shall be paid by the employer on the same days and conditions in which the wages shall be paid, and it shall be fixed at not less than 1 balboa per day; however, when the wage are less than that sum, they shall be paid in full. If after the lapse of one year the temporary disability of the employee has not ceased, compensation shall be governed by the provision related permanent disabilities.
- In case of partial permanent disability, the employee shall be entitled to a pension for three years computed in the basis of his monthly salary, according to the percentage of disability in accordance with the rules established.
- In case of total permanent disability, the employee shall be entitled to be paid a pension during three years, once it is established, computed on the basis of 60% of his annual wage; during the following two years to a pension equal to 40% of his annual wage; and two more years at thirty percent.
The pensions established in paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not ne cumulative and the time lapsed under one permanent disability shall be credited to the other in case that a partial permanent disability may change to a total permanent disability.
Injuries which, without producing disability, result in serious mutilation of disfigurement of the victim, shall be considered, for purposes of the corresponding indemnity (compensation) the same as partial permanent disability.
Whenever professional risk causes the death of the employee, the persons who are hereinafter said for shall be entitled to a pension under the following conditions:
- A pension of 20% percent of the annual wage of the victim during six years for the spouse or surviving member of the marriage or the woman who lived with the employee as a marital partner, or who was divorced, or separated physically due to causes attributable to him, provided the union or marriage had taken place prior to the death on which the professional risk occurred. Whenever the pension corresponds to the husband, the letter shall only be entitled to it if he proves that he is unable to the work. The woman who marries again or who has marital relations with another man, shall loose this right. Said pension shall be increased to 30% of the annual wage if the workman did not have any beneficiaries among those included in paragraph 2 of this article.
- A pension for minor under 18 years of age and up to that age who were living totally or partially on the expenses of the deceased employee, provided this fact is duly established. Said prove shall not be require when the minors are children of the deceased. In the case other descendants of the deceased employee, including those who may be clearly in possession of such civil status, and of the collaterals up to the third degree inclusive, and are presumed to have lived at the expense of the workman if they lived and were fed and clothed in the same dwelling with him. The afore mentioned pension shall be computed on the annual wage of the deceased workman and shall be:
- 15% if there is only one minor;
- 25% if there are 2;
- 35% if there are 3;
- 40% if there are four or more
If there is no beneficiary entitled to the pension which is established in the preceding paragraph, the pension of the children shall be raised to 20% when there is not more than one; to 15% for each of them if there are two or more, with the limitation established in article 313.
- A pension of 20% of the annual wage, during ten years, for the mother of the deceased workman which shall be raised to 30% of the said wage if there is no beneficiary of those included in clause 2 above.
- A pension of 10% of the annual wage of the deceased workman, doing ten years, for the sexagenary or incapacity father.
- A pension of 10% of the annual wage of the deceased workman, during six years, for each one of the ascendants or collaterals, who lived at the expense of the victim, but the total of these incomes cannot exceed 30% of the annual wage of the worker. It is presumed that such persons lived at the expense of the workman if they dwelt in the same dwelling as the latter and if they lacked, partly or completely resources for their support.
In case of professional risk, the employer is required to provide free of charge to the charge to the employee, until he dies, or until he is fully recovered, or until he is declared by medical opinion to be permanently disabled, the following services:
- Medical and surgical assistance, and medicines, supplies and other pharmaceutical articles.
- The auxiliary aids of the medical treatment prescribed which serve to ensure its success or to reduce the consequences of the injury or disease.
- The normal provision, repair and replacement of prosthetic and orthopedic supplies, the use if which is considered necessary in view of the injury suffered.
- The necessary expenses of transportation, board and lodging of the victim, whenever he must be treated and he must live in a place different from his habitual residence or place of work.
If there should be disagreement between employers and employees with respect to the determination of the sum corresponding to expense of board and lodging, the labor courts shall fix it at the request of any parties, without any other proceeding and without any appeal whatever against such determination.
From the moment an employee begins working, the employer must deduct the amount of 9.75% from his monthly salary, and the employer will contribute with an additional 12.25%, that will be paid to the Social Security, to provide for health care and retirement, once the minimum requirements are obtained.
In order to receive the benefit of a retirement pension, employees has had to contribute with at least 240 monthly payments to the Social Security, and if is a woman, must have reach 57 years old, and men 62 years old.
Prior to the imposition of a disciplinary sanction by the employer, the employee is entitled to be heard and to be accompanied by an adviser, appointed by the trade union thereof.
In all work centers, establishments and businesses with twenty or more employees, a Company Committee shall function, being a joint committee made up of two employer’s representatives and two union representatives, designated on an annual basis by the respective labor union. Where there is no labor union, the employees will elect a representative.
The Company committee, at the request of the party concerned, shall have the right of conciliation in the controversies that arise due to noncompliance with obligations by the employee or the employer.
At all times, both parties may look for expeditious solutions before the administrative or judicial labor authorities.
Working days are divided into the following shifts or periods: day work, from 6:00 am. to 6:00 pm.; night work, from 6:00 pm. to 6:00 am.; mixed shift, is comprising of working hours in both periods, provided that the period of night shift shall be less than three hours.
The maximum day work is eight hours, and the corresponding week, forty-eight hours.
The maximum night work is seven hours, and the corresponding week, forty-two hours.
The maximum mixed work is seven hours and thirty minutes, and the corresponding week forty-five hours.
The work for seven-night hours and seven and a half for mixed shift, will be paid as eight hours of day shift work.
Working hours shall mean the time which the workman may not use freely because he is subject to the orders of the employer.
Work time, exceeding the limits set forth above, or of lower contractual or legally prescribed limits, constitutes overtime and will be paid as follows:
- 25% increase in wages when work is performed during the daytime.
- 50% increase in wages when work is performed during the night period or when the mixed shifts started in the daytime are prolonged.
- 75% increase in wages when the overtime work shift is an extension of the night shift or the mixed shift, started during the night period.
No more than three hours of overtime per shift are allowed. Working in excess of this limitation, will be paid with an additional increase of 75%, apart from the penalties that may be applied to the employer.
The following are holidays or national days of mourning imposed by law as obligatory days of rest:
- January 1st and 9th
- Tuesday of carnival
- Good Friday
- May 1st.
- November 3rd
- November 10th and 28th
- December 8th and 25th
- The day the President elect of the Republic is sworn into office (July 1st, every 5 years)
Work on a legal holiday or day of national mourning shall be paid with an increase of one hundred and fifty percent over the ordinary work day, without prejudice to the right of the workman to be given, as compensation any other rest day during the week. The increase of one hundred and fifty percent includes payment for the rest day.
When the employee provides services on Sundays, in his weekly rest day, or in the day which he would have had free because he had worked on holiday or on a day of national mourning, he will be paid an increase of fifty percent on the ordinary work day.
A 50% increase will be paid for all work performed during the workman’s free days in the case of work weeks of less than six days if the work is carried out during the day working hours and a 75% increase for mixed hours or night hours.
Employees with indefinite labor contracts who are dismissed can request that the Conciliation Board or the Labor Courts where the board does not function, to be reinstated to the position he held or that the severance be paid in accordance to what is established in the Labor Code. If during the corresponding process the employer does not prove just cause for dismissal or the prior resolution that authorized the same, the sentencing will recognize the rights requested by the employee, the payment of back salaries, which will be calculated as follows;
- For up to three months as of the date of dismissal, for those employees who began working after August 1995.
- For up to five months, for those employees who were employed before August 1995.
- The labor proceedings in process at the courts before August 1995 which involve payment of services rendered, back salary or compensation will be governed by the norms in effect at the time this law went into effect. Up to one-year salaries.
The sentencing should state that the payment of compensation will be taken from the pension fund quoted by the employer or, in its defect, by the employer directly, who will also have to pay to cost of the process.
In cases were reinstatement is ordered, the employer can terminate the labor relationship, paying the corresponding compensations plus an additional charge which will be calculated as follows:
- Fifty percent (50%) over the corresponding compensation for those employees who are working in the company after August 1995.
- Twenty five percent (25%) over the corresponding compensation for those employees who began working before August 1995.
When reinstatement has been ordered, the employee who has been dismissed without sufficient reason must be reinstated in his position immediately, or within the second working day following the execution of the respective resolution within the same conditions existing before the dismissal.
In case of reluctance on the part of the employer, with or without request of the interested party, the Judge shall order physical arrest, as guilty of contempt of court.
The right of the employee to place a claim for unfair dismissal prescribes in sixty working days as of the date of dismissal, plus payment, in both cases, of back salary. When the claim is only for the compensation due to unfair dismissal and other compensations derived from the termination of the labor relationship, the same prescribes one year after the date of the dismissal.
The employer cannot terminate the labor relation for an indefinite period, unless there is a justified cause provided for by the law, and according to the formalities of the latter.
- Insolvency or bankruptcy of the employer;
- The closing of the business or definite reduction of work due to a noticeable and evident lack or profitability in the exploitation or depletion of the raw material object of the extraction activity; and
- Definite suspension of inherent work in the employee’s contract or an obvious reduction in the employee’s activities, due to a serious economic crisis, partial failure to cover costs of operations, due to reduction in production or innovations in the processes and manufacturing equipment, or revocation or expiration of the administrative concession, cancellation of order or purchase orders or sales, or any other similar reason, properly established by the competent authority.
In these cases of dismissal due to economic crisis, the following rules will apply:
- The first employees will be those with the least amount of time within the respective categories;
- Once the preceding rule has been applied, in deciding which employees are to be kept on the staff, preference shall be given to the Panamanian employees over foreigners, labor union employees over those who are not, and the most efficient in respect to the less efficient.
- Pregnant women, even if they are not preferentially covered by the previous rules, shall be dismissed last and only if necessary and after all the legal formalities have been fulfilled.
- In equal circumstances, after having applied the previous rules, employees protected by the labor union privilege shall have preference over other in remaining on the job.
When the cause of dismissal is one of those mentioned above, the employer must give evidence of the cause before the administrative authorities of labor.
In these cases, the dismissal that does not comply with the requirements mentioned in the above subparagraph, will be deemed unfair.
However, if at the time of expiration of the term of sixty calendar days, the administrative authorities have not resolved the request, the employer can proceed with the dismissal, which will be deemed completely justified and will be obligated to pay the severance established in the Labor Code.
Any alteration in the judicial or economic structure of the business, or the substitution of the employer, shall be governed by the following rules:
- The alteration or substitution will not affect the existing labor relationships to the detriment of the employees;
- Without prejudice to the legal responsibility between both, in accordance with common law, and in the event of a change of employer, the outgoing employer shall be jointly and severally liable with the new employer, in all the obligations derived from the contracts or the law, arising before the date of substitution and up to the term of one year, as of the date of the notice referred to in the next paragraph. Upon expiration of this term, liability will rest solely with the new employer.
- The respective employees and labor unions shall be notified of the substitution in writing no later than 15 days following the date of the substitution.
- Failure to give notification shall maintain the joint responsibility of the employers until said notification is given.
- In no event will the rights or actions of the employees be affected, nor will it alter the unity of the employer, the economic fractionating of the company where they render services, nor the contracts, agreements or commercial combinations which tend to decrease or distribute the responsibilities of the employer.
- If the patrimony of the business has been transferred to a third party by an arbitrary, judicial or any other kind of act, which later is declared illegal or unconstitutional, it will neither affect the continuity of the company, nor substitutions of the employer, and the beneficiary of said act will be solely responsible for the judicial consequences derived from the acts, contracts or the law which took place between the date on which patrimony was transferred and the date on which the same was returned to its legitimate owner, except in the cases of simulation and fraud for the benefit of the person who transferred said patrimony.
The beneficiary of the arbitrary act will respond to the satisfaction of the debts incurred during the corresponding time period the patrimony was held or produced after the start of the transactions with the shareholders and directors, if any.
Individually, every employee has the right to present a claim to the Ministry of Labor authorities, claim that will produce a conciliatory procedure trying to resolve the dispute with an agreement.
Same right have the unions to present claims on behalf of the employees, either to produce a conciliatory procedure, or to propose a petition list accusing the employer for not complying to with the labor law or to the collective labor agreement.
Employees that considers their dismissal were produced without a justified cause, as established in the Labor Code, have the right to propose a suit in the Conciliatory and Decision Board, where the hearing will take place. Both parties have the right to present an appeal to the Board decision, to the Superior Labor Court, which will produce the final and definitive resolution.
Claims for payments of accrued rights that are higher of $2,000.00 are proposed in the regular labor courts. Any appeal will be heard in the Superior Labor Court, and the final and definitive decision can go all the way to the Supreme Court.
All employees are entitled to an annual pay rest (vacation).
The right to vacations exists even though the contract does not require that the workman work all the hours of the ordinary work day or on every day of the week.
The duration of the remuneration for vacation shall be governed by the following rules:
- Thirty days for every eleven continuous months of work, at rate of one day for every eleven days in the service of his employer.
- Payment of one month’s wages when the remuneration is agreed on by the month, and four weeks and one third, when agreed on per week. In these cases, if the wages include bonuses, commissions or other variable sums, or of the workman has received an increase in wages, the average ordinary and overtime wages accrued during the last eleven months, or the last basic wage, will be paid, whichever is more favorable to the workman.
- In the case employees are paid by the hour or by the day, the total ordinary and overtime payment that the workman has received during the last 11 months of service shall be divided by the number of ordinary working hours served, or less time served, in case of proportionate vacations, and this quotient shall be multiplied by the number of annual rest days to which he is entitled. If the basic salary accrued during the last month is more than the average, the vacations shall be paid in accordance with the former.
- For the purposes of computation of time served which entitles the employee to a vacation, the duration of the weekly legal holidays or national mourning and sick leave, as well as other interruptions expressly authorized by the employer, will be counted.
- The sum that the employee must receive will be computed and paid to him three days in advance of the date on which he may begin to enjoy his annual rest (vacation).
- If the labor relationship is terminated before the employee has the right to the complete vacation period dealt with in this article, he will be paid in cash the proportional vacation days to which he is entitled at the rate of one day for every 11 days of work, and
- When the vacation period has been completed, the employee is entitled to be reinstated in his position.
When the employee receives part of his wages in kind, the payment in kind or its equivalent in money must be added to remunerations, according to that which is established in the Labor Code.
Every employee working in Panama is entitled to a special benefit considered as a thirteen-month bonus, which represents one-month salary, to be paid in three equal parts during the months of April, August and December.
From the start of the contract, the employee will begin to establish a sick leave fund, which will be twelve hours for every twenty-six shifts worked or one hundred and forty-four hours a year, which he may use as a whole or in part while receiving full pay, in case of illness or a non-work related accident. This fund is accumulative for two years and can be used in whole or part during the third year of service.
When the employee does not have the right to Social Security benefits and the sick leave fund runs out, he will have the right to have the leave time extended by having the time deducted from his accumulated vacation time. If the Social security benefits are not recognized due to late payments or fault of the employer, the later must pay the corresponding subsidy.
Certificates of incapacity must be issued by medical professionals, be numbered, contain the registration number given to the medical professional by the General Health Office, the complete name of the doctor, address, telephone number and name of the public institution, be it the Social Security Hospital or Ministry of Health, or private clinic where the medical professional works.
The certificate of incapacity that does not comply with these requirements will not be valid, unless for reasons of the place where it was issued it was impossible to comply with any one of these items. The medical professional must maintain, in the employees’ file, a copy of each certificate with the diagnosis or motive of incapacity.
Discrimination in Panama is forbidden. According to the provisions of Panama’s Constitution, there shall not be privileges or discriminations because of race, birth, disability, social class, sex, religion or political views.
The law prohibits job advertisement requiring a certain age of the candidate.
It is unlawful to employ:
- Minors under fourteen years of age.
- Minors up to fifteen years of age who have not completed their primary school education.
Those who are under 18 cannot work in those jobs which due to their nature or the conditions under which they performed, are dangerous to the life, health or morals of the person who carry them out, especially the following:
- Work in clubs, bars and other places where alcoholic beverages are retailed.
- Transportation of passengers and goods by highways, railways, airplanes, inland water ways and work on piers and in warehouses;
- Work related to the generation, transformation and transmission of electrical power.
- Handling of explosives or inflammable substances;
- Underground work in mines, stone queries, tunnels or sewers.
- Handling of substances, devices or apparatus which exposes them to the effects of radioactivity.
What is provided in numbers 2,3,4 and 5 of this article will not be applied to the work of young persons vocational schools, provided such work is approved and supervised by the competent authorities.
In farming and cattle establishments, minors between 12 and 15 years of age may be employed only in light work and outside the hours prescribed for school education.
Likewise, those who are under 18 cannot work:
- In night work from 6 p.m. to 8 a.m.
- Overtime hours on Sundays, legal holidays or days of national mourning.
Contracts concerning the work of those who are under 18 must be entered into with the participation of the father or legal representative of same. If they have no father or legal guardian, the contracts will be executed directly by the minors in question, with the approval of the labor administrative authority.
To determine the hours of work, the school requirements of minors will be taken into consideration, and the hours of work cannot exceed:
- Six hours per day and thirty-six per week, with respect to those who are under 16; and
Seven hours per day and 42 per week, with respect to those who are under 18.
An intermediary is any person who engages, or intervenes in the engagement of, the services of other persons to perform some work in favor of the employer.
Contractors, subcontractors and other established undertakings which engage employees for the execution of jobs, for the direct benefit of third persons, with capital, equipment, management, and other elements owned by them, will not be considered as middlemen, but as employers.
Notwithstanding, the direct beneficiary of the services rendered, or jobs performed, shall be jointly and severally liable with the contractor, subcontractor and other established undertakings for the fulfillment of the pending obligations in favor of the employees, in the case of the jobs or operations inherent, related to or connected with the line of activities of the beneficiary, even if the subcontract is expressly prohibited in the juridical act entered into between beneficiaries and contractors.
In any event, the contractor shall be jointly and severally liable with all the subcontractors of the obligations that these may have pending with the workmen.
In undertakings which execute jobs that are exclusively or principally for the benefit of another undertaking, the latter and not the former shall be considered the employer of all the employees who render services for the former, but both will be jointly and severally liable for all the services and indemnities to which the workmen may be entitled.
Also, is considered to be an employee the person who periodically sells or in any way delivers articles, materials, effects, or any kinds of assets, to an individual who lacks his own organization, the latter reselling or distributing them, provided that the resale or distribution is made in accordance with certain routes, itineraries, norms or directions, or that his main means of support be derived from such activity.
With the prior authorization of the Ministry of Labor, the operations and undertakings which dedicate themselves to providing their own employees to perform services for the undertakings that require them provisionally, for periods that do not exceed two months, under their intermediate direction and in accordance with the following rules, is permitted:
- The minimum wage that must be received by the employees shall be at the highest rates specified for the respective district.
- The undertakings that use the services of the employees shall be jointly and severally liable with the employing undertaking, for the wages, benefits and indemnities corresponding to the period to which, in each case, their services are employed.
- Acts of the person or undertaking making use of the services, detrimental to the employee, shall be considered acts of the employer for all legal purposes.
The Ministry of Labor is empowered to regulate this provision and to ensure that the provisions concerning the placement of employees are not flouted by these undertakings.
Basic rights established by law, cannot be negotiated. Such rights are: minimum salary, maximum day and week shift, mandatory weekly rest day, vacations, 13th month bonus, sick leave, and any other benefit included in the respective employment contract or created by law.
Employees have the right to be included in the Social Security system, which allows them to health protection, and collect the retire fund, when age is completed.
Employees have the right to be members of a union and to negotiate a collective agreement with the employer.
Employees have the right to work and to maintain their job. They can only be dismissed if a disciplinary cause is committed, but the employer must prove in court the specific cause or causes.
Executive Decree No. 238 of June 10, 2019
REQUIREMENTS TO APPLY FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCY FOR EXECUTIVES OF MULTINATIONAL HEADQUARTERS OFFICES (“SEM” for its acronym in Spanish).
As of June 11th, 2019, the requirements to apply for the Permanent Resident Permit for Executives of SEM companies who i) continue working at a SEM company, and ii) no longer work for a SEM company.Read more
Executive Decree No. 249 of June 10, 2019
PROCEDURE AND REQUIREMENTS TO APPLY FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCY FOR FOREIGNERS WHO HAVE OBTAINED RENEWAL OF THEIR PROVISIONAL RESIDENCE PERMITS OF 10 YEARS AND 6 YEARS ARE ESTABLISHED.
As of June 13th 2019, the date on which this Executive Decree became effective, the procedure and requirements for applying to the Permanent Residency for foreigners who have obtained their 10 or 6-year Provisional Residence Permits are established.Read more
Executive Decree No. 237 of June 10, 2019
EXECUTIVE DECREE NO. 182 OF MAY 28th 2019, THROUGH WHICH THE TEMPORARY RESIDENCE PERMIT AS EMPLOYEE OF AVIATION COMPANIES WAS CREATED, IS MODIFIED.
As of June 11th 2019, the current Executive Decree for the Subcategory of Temporary Resident as Employee of Aviation Companies located in the Republic of Panama, is modified.Read more
As of May 28th, 2019, five (5) Executive Decrees were enacted to modify rules related to the granting of residence and work permits. The main changes are the following:
NATIONAL IMMIGRATION AUTHORITY.
- Stay Visa for citizens of the United States of America:
A new category of Stay Visa is created for citizens of the United States of America, for reasons of studies, investment, temporary or technical work, or labor transfer. It will be granted for a term of one (1) year, extendable annually up to five (5) more times.
- Temporary Resident as Employee of Aviation Companies:
The category of Temporary Resident is modified for Employees of Aviation Companies based in the Republic of Panama, who will be granted a residence permit for two (2) years, extendable for the same term, until completing a total period of six (6) years.
MINISTRY OF LABOR
- Work Permit for Permanent Residents:
A new category of work permit is created for permanent residents, which will be granted for a term of three (3) years, extendable for the same term.
- Work Permit for Foreigners married to a national:
It will be now granted for two (2) years the first time and the extension for three (3) years each time. Previously, it was granted for a term of one (1) year, extendable for one (1) year each time.
- Work Permit for Foreigners, within ten percent of the ordinary personnel:
It will now be granted for a term of two (2) years, extendable for the same time. Previously it was granted for a term of one (1) year, extendable for one (1) year each time.
- Work Permit for Expert or Technicians, within fifteen percent of the specialized personnel:
It will now be granted for a term of two (2) years, extendable for the same time. Previously, it was granted for a term of one (1) year, extendable for one (1) year each time until completing five years.
- Work Permit Marrakech Agreement:
The minimum number of workers that a company must have of less than ten (10) workers is established. The company must have a minimum of three (3) Panamanian workers and may only have as a foreigner the worker applying for the work permit.
- Work Permit for Professional Foreigner:
It will now be granted the term of two (2) years, the first time, and the extensions for three (3) years each time. You can apply for this work permit with a temporary ID card; that is, even by not having the resolution of approval of residence permit.